On July 12 in …
1429 –- In the Hundred Years War, Joan of Arc leads the French army in the capture of the city and the English commander, Duke William de la Pole, in the second day of the Battle of Jargeau, France.
1775 –- British General Sir Thomas Gage declares martial law in the Massachusetts colony. The British offer a pardon to all colonists who lay down their arms except for Samuel Adams and John Hancock who they say, if captured, will be hanged.
1939 –- The National Baseball Hall of Fame officially opens in Cooperstown, NY, the result of an effort by Stephen Carlton Clark, owner of a local hotel.
1967 -– The United States Supreme Court, in the case of Loving v. Virginia, declares all state laws prohibiting interracial marriage to be unconstitutional.
1994 –- Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman are murdered outside her home in Los Angeles, CA. Celebrity athlete/actor O.J. Simpson, her estranged husband, will be acquitted in a criminal court of the killings, but later held liable in a wrongful death civil suit.